Agriculture And Environment.

Agriculture And Environment.


  • Booklet No.489
  • Crop production systems – 20
  • K.T.Chandy, Agriculture and Environment Education.


International center with the family farmers group has farming awareness programs happening. This was an eye opener for me. I thought I shall share it with all.

When we think of farming we think of the Mother India mode, but Punjab has progressed because it has ventured into more modern forms of farming. Goa was sadly lacking but currently Mr.Mangruish Pai Raikar of the GCCI and I-Create has started a movement, such that people can optimize their available farms.

When people consider agriculture three basic questions arise

  1. What to produce
  2. How to produce
  3. How much to produce.

Answering these questions give direction to all agriculatural processes that is to followed by the farmers.

Like all systems with reference to agriculture too there is a blur between types and system. That is to says types of farming is different from systems of farming. When we say systems we are addressing the organization.

  1. Who owns the land
  2. Whether the resources are pooled
  3. Who makes the marginal decisions.

When we say types we mean  the nature of farming, the product or the combination of product methods and practises that create the product.

For example  in a situation where most of the farm resources are allocated to the production of a single product, would be very different from the type of farming in a situation where several products having almost equal importance in terms of resources consumption and distribution  to farm income are produced. There instances where crop raising is combined with milk production on the farm. It could be owned by single owner or the land could belong to a group of persons these collectively do the farming operations and a board of management or executive committee is formed to make necessary decisions.

There are situations where landlord gives his land to a tenant farmer on share basis. Here the tenant decides about the activities to be carried out on the farm provides his labour and other inputs except land and whatever output he gets half of that goes to the landlord.


Types Of Farming

Systems Of Farming

  1. Diversified
  2. Speicialized
  3. Mixed
  4. Ranching
  5. Dry
  6. Mechanized
  7. Marginal
  8. Cor-perative joint
  9. Cooperative collective
  10. Pesant
  11. State
  12. Capitalistic


Types Of Farming

The type of farming in an area is determined by the natural and economic and to an extent social factors.  Religious beliefs and social background also have a role to some extent in following the type of farming.  The size of the farm, land values, technological development influence the type of farming practised in a region.

A farm on which no single porudct or source of income equals as much as 50% of the total receipt is called a Diversified Or General farm. On such a farm the farm depends on several sources of income.



  1. better use of land, labour and capital. Better use of land through adoption of crop roations steady employement of farm and family labour, and more profitable use of equipment are obtained in diversified farming.
  2. Business risk is reduced due to a crop failure or unfavarable market prices.
  3. Regular and quicker returns are obtained from various enterprises through out the year.
  4. Proper utilization of by-products.


  1. Marketing is insufficient unless producers arrange for the sale of their produce on co-operative basis.
  2. Because of various jobs in diversified farming a farmer can effectively supervise only limited number of workers.
  3. Better equipping of the farm is not possible because itis not economical to have expensive implements and machinery for each enterprise.
  4. There are chances when some of the leaks in farm business may remain undetected due to diversity of operations.

When more than 50% of the farming income is derived from one source it is refered to as Specialized Farming.

Specialized farming would give us one commodity for the market. The farmer effectively depends on a single source of income. A trend towards specialized farming is seen in areas where there are special market outputs and when economic conditions are fairly uniform for a long period.


Regions of specialization



Punjab, UP, M.P and eastern Rajasthan



Assam, west Bengal, bihar, eastern UP, western ghats, and coastal belts of Orissa and Tamil Nadu



Punjab, MP, Karnataka and parts of Maharashtra and gujarat



Gangetic plains of U.P. and Bihar, Punjab, tamil nadu, Orissa, and  Karnataka



Assam, Bengal,U.P. Bihar, and coastal region.


  • Better use of land, and it is more profibale to grow a crop on a land best suited to it.
  • Better marketing as pecialization allows better assembling, grading, processing, storing transporting and financing of the produce.
  • Better management lesser the diversification there is more focus on the details. The neglect and wastage gets reduced.
  • Less equipment and labour is required.
  • High end equipment can be kept as the usage will justify it.
  • Efficiency and skillness is increased. Specialization allows a man to be more efficient and expert in doing a few things.


  • The risk of crop failure is higher and this could ruin the farmer completely.
  • Productive resources like land, labour and capital are not fully utilized.
  • Fertility of soil cannot be maintained properly for lack of suitable rotation
  • By products of the farm cannot be fully utilizied due to lack of livestock on the farm.
  • Farm retuns in cash are generally received more than once a year.
  • General knowledge on farming becomes limited.

When combinations of crop products and sufficient amount of livestock raising is done it is Mixed Farming. The farming here is diversified and livestock is production is an complementary enterprise.

Mixed farming allows for recycling, renourishing and fertilizing with the same farming enterprise.  About 10 – 45% of the income of the enterprise is from livestock. There is a slight variation between diverse farming and mixed farming.

Sl. No,



Type of farming


Cows and buffaloes only

10 -49%

Mixed farming


Cows, buffaloes, poultry, piggery, goats, sheep, and crop

50% + and above

Diverse farming.

 The advantage of this enterprise is:

  1. Helps in maintaining soil fertility.
  2. It ends to give balanced labour load throughout the year for the farmer and his family
  3. It permits the proper use of farm by-products
  4. It provides greater incentive for cultivation
  5. It often gets higher returns of farm business.

Ranching is a practise of grazing animals, specially sheep and goat and is usually on public land. Sometimes such land is utilized for raising dairy stock, then it is called a dairy ranch. Ranching is seen commonly in Australia and Tibet. The word ranch does not come under the specification provided for a farm.











































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